Variation in District Level Fertility of Odisha
An Empirical Analysis
Almost all developing countries of the world are undertaking various population control programmes aiming at reduction of fertility. As response to several programmes of birth control and socio-economic development, India has seen a decline in fertility. However, the level and the pace of decline heterogeneous across states. This paper aims at finding the socio-economic factors affecting district level disparities in fertility in the state. Two indicators of fertility namely Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) have been analysed in this paper. Besides, several district level socio-economic indicators such as female literacy rate, female work participation rate, percentage of non-agricultural worker, sex ratio, level of urbanization, proportion of Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste population, contraceptive prevalence rate and Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) have been used to examine the association of fertility with socio-economic development. Correlation and Regression techniques have been used to observe the relative effects of socio-economic indicators on fertility. The finding reveals that the Crude Birth Rate is high in the southern districts such as Rayagada, Koraput, Nabarangpur and Malkangiri. The Total Fertility Rate is high in western and southern districts such as Kandhamal, Koraput, Nabarangpur and Malkangiri. District level analysis reveals that the women’s agency (female literacy and female work participation) has significant negative effect on fertility. Economic prosperity and use of modern contraceptives have a role too in influencing fertility in the state.